- Kline L J. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: The Therapeutic Use of Self. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 1990; 28(11): 42-3.
- Irez G B. Pilates exercise positively affects balance, reaction time, muscle strength, number of faults and psychological parameters in +65 years old women. The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middleeast Technical University. Department of Physical Education and Sport. 2009.
- Bmore J B. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students. Sport. 2011; 82(2): 291-301.
- Colcombe S, Kramer A F. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults a meta-analytic study. Psychological Science. 2003; 14(2): 125-30.
- Wang S, Blazer D G. Depression and cognition in the elderly. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2015; 11(4): 331-60.
- Farooqui AA, Farooqui T. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases. 1st edition. OH, John Wiley & Sons; 2015; 205-12.
- Hill R D, Storandt M, Malley M. The impact of longterm exercise training on psychological function in older adults. J Gerontol. 1993; 48(1):7-12.
- Lange C, Unnithan V, Larkam E, Latta P. Maximizing the benefits of Pilates-inspired exercise for learning functional motor skills. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000; 4(2): 99-108.
- Segal N A, Hein J, Basford J R. The effects of Pilates training on flexibility and body composition: An observational study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2004; 85(12): 1977-81.
- McAuley E, Arthur F, Colcombe S J. Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: A brief review. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2004; 18(3): 214–20.
- Forbes S C, Forbes D, Forbes S, Blake C M, Chong L Y, Thiessen E J, et al. Exercise interventions for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid life. 1st edition. LA: The Cochrane Library; 2015: 122-65.
- Imm P S. Perceive benefits of participants in an employee's fitness program. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1990; 71(2): 753-4.
- Leopold B A, Gil G M, Santarém J, Jacob F W. Physical activity and cognition in the elderly (a review). Dementia & Neuropsychologia. 2009; 3(3): 204-8.
- Angevaren M, Aufdemkampe G, Verhaar H J, Aleman A, Vanhees I. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment (Review). The Cochrane Library. 2008;3(3):91–6.
- Bahram A, Shafizadeh M. Life span motor development (from fundamentals to programming). 2nd edition. Tehran: Nersi Publication; 2007:115-28 (In Persian).
- Brown B, Piper E, Riggs C, Gormann D, Garzo E, Dykes D. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and anaerobic training upon brain neurotransmitters and cytochrome oxydase activity in muscle. Intern J Sports Med. 1992; 13(4): 92-3.
- Owen A M, Roberts A C, Hodges J R, Robbins T W. Contrasting mechanisms of impaired attentional set-shifting in patients whit frontal lobe damage or Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1993; 116(5): 1159-75.
- Strauss E, Sherman M S, Spreen O. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. 3rd edition.. USA: Oxford University Press; 2006: 170-210.
- Morice R. Cognitive in flexibility and pre-frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and mania. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1990; 157(1): 50-4.
- Forooghan M. Dementia screening, validated cognitive tests in Iranian elderly.1st edition. Tehran: Arjmand Publication; 2010: 50-76.(In Persian).
- Gordon N F, Gulanick M, Costa F, Fletcher G, Franklin BA, Roth EJ, Shephard T. Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors. Circulation. 2004; 109(16): 2031-41.
- Woodward M J, Lu C W, Levandowski R, Kostis J, Bachmann G. The exercise prescription for enhancing overall health of midlife and older women. Maturitas. 2015; 82(1): 65-71.
- Bullo V, Bergamin M, Gobbo S, Sieverdes J C, Zaccaria M, Neunhaeuserer D, et al. The effects of Pilates exercise training on physical fitness and wellbeing in the elderly: A systematic review for future exercise prescription. Preventive Medicine. 2015; 75(5): 1-11.
- Grant S, Todd K, Aitchison T C, Kelly P, Stoddart D. The effects of a 12-week group exercise programme on psychological variables and function on overweight women. Public Health. 2004; 118(1): 31-42.
- Segal NA, Hein J, Basford JR. The effects of Pilates training on flexibility and body composition: an observational study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2004 Dec 31;85(12):1977-81. 2001.
- Young J, Angevaren M, Rusted J, Tabet N. Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. The Cochrane Library. 2015; 22(4): 26-39.
- Koo J P, Moon O K. Effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in the elderly persons. Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research. 2012; 3(2): 453-7.
- Antunes H K, Mello M T, Aquino L V, Santos-Galduróz R F, Camargo L, Amodeo O F, et al. Aerobic physical exercise improved the cognitive function of elderly males but did not modify their blood homocysteine levels. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra. 2015; 5(1): 13-24.
- Hindin S B, Zelinski E M. Extended practice and aerobic exercise interventions benefit untrained cognitive outcomes in older adults: A meta‐analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012; 60(1): 136-41.
- Duchesne C, Lungu O, Nadeau A, Robillard M E, Boré A, Bobeuf F, et al. Enhancing both motor and cognitive functioning in Parkinson’s disease: Aerobic exercise as a rehabilitative intervention. Brain and Cognition. 2015; 99(6): 68-77.
- Chin L M, Keyser R E, Dsurney J, Chan L. Improved cognitive performance following aerobic exercise training in people with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(4): 754-9.
- Silveira C R, Roy E A, Almeida Q J. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and gait in Parkinson's disease: Does baseline cognitive status matter. Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport. 2015; 47(1): 46-54.
- Köbe T, Witte A V, Schnelle A, Lesemann A, Fabian S, Tesky V A, et al. Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage. 2016; 131(4): 226-38.
- Gaudlitz K, Plag J, Dimeo F, Ströhle A. Aerobic exercise training facilitates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 2015; 32(3): 221-8.
- Oertel-Knöchel V, Mehler P, Thiel C, Steinbrecher K, Malchow B, Tesky V, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2014; 264(7): 589-654.
- Bossers W J, Woude L H, Boersma F, Hortobágyi T, Scherder E J, Heuvelen M J. A 9-week aerobic and strength training program improves cognitive and motor function in patients with dementia: A randomized, controlled trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2015; 23(11): 1106-16.
- Memmedova K. Impact of Pilates on anxiety attention, motivation, cognitive function and achievement of students: Structural modeling. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 186 (6): 544-8.
- Rahmani M, Heirani A, Yazdanbakhsh K. The effect of Pilates training on improving the reaction time and balance of sedentary elderly men. Modern Rehabilitation. 2015; 9(3): 44-53. (In Persian).
- Nazakatolhosaini M, Mokhtari M, Esfarjani F. The effect of pilates training on improvement of motor and cognitive functions related to falling in elderly female. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2012; 8(3): 489-501. (In Persian).
- Rezvanpoor F, Nezakatolhossaini M, Esfarjani F. The effect of Pilates training on memory quotient and upper and lower extremity functions in stroke patients. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2014; 6(16): 43-60. (In Persian).
- Friedman P, Eisen G. The Pilates method of physical and mental conditioning. 1st edition. UK: Viking Studio; 2005. 45-50.
- Ahearn E L. The Pilates method and ballet technique: Applications in the dance studio. Journal of Dance Education. 2006; 6(3): 92-9.
- Gallagher S P, Kryzanowska R, Speleotis S. The Pilates method of body conditioning: Introduction to the core exercises.2nd edition. UK: Bain Bridge Books; 1999. 150-70.
- Pilates J H, Miller W J. Return to life through contrology. 3rd edition. USA: Christopher Publishing House; 1960. 180-211.
- Colcomb S J, Kramer A F. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A metaanalytic study. Psychol Sci. 2003; 14(2): 25-30.
46. Van der Borght K, Kóbor‐Nyakas D É, Klauke K, Eggen B J, Nyakas C, Van der Zee E, et al. Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: Temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Hippocampus. 2009; 19(10): 928-36.
47. Van Prag H. Exercise and the brain: Something to chew on. Trends in Neuroscience. 2009; 32(5): 283-90.
48. Kravitz L. Exercise and the brain: It will make you want to work out. IDEA Fitness Journal. 2010; 7(2): 18-9.
49. Archer T, Fredriksson A, Schϋtz E, Kostrzewa R M. Influence of physical exercise on neuro immunological functioning and health: Aging and stress. Neurotoxicity Research. 2011; 20(1): 69-83.
50. Phillips C, Baktir M A, Srivatsan M, Salehi A. Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: A closer look at trophic factor signaling. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2014; 8(4): 170.
51. Neeper S A, Gómez-Pinilla F, Choi J, Cotman C W. Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain. Brain Research. 1996; 726(1): 49-56.
52. Ferris L T, Williams J S, Shen C L. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2007; 39(4): 728-34.
53. Sampaio-Baptista C, Khrapitchev A A, Foxley S, Schlagheck T, Scholz J, Jbabdi S. Motor skill learning induces changes in white matter microstructure and myelination. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2013; 33(50): 19499-503.
54. Fields R D. Change in the brain’s white matter: The role of the brain’s white matter in active learning and memory may be underestimated. Science (New York). 2010; 330(6005): 768.